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A Moral Equivalent for Riots - Night Call
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Date:1968-06-04
Length: 58:50 minutes:seconds
Del Shields, (Host) ; Harvey Wheeler, (Guest)
The guest is Harvey Wheeler, a political scientist who co-authored the best-selling book, "Fail-Safe," along with Eugene Burdick. The book was later adapted into a 1964 film of the same name, starring Henry Fonda. Wheeler had just finished a study of violence in race relations, and wrote an article called "A Moral Equivalent for Riots." Wheeler lived in Santa Barbara, California. He had suggestions to improve society in the U.S., including a "Black Congress" as a new arm of government. He also focuses on "cultural deprivation" - the poor situations in which children are raised, and the inherent racism in society. Callers wanted to talk about racism, jobs, poverty, the slow movement of Congress, integration, and guaranteed income. Wheeler died in 2004 at the age of 85.
Topics: African Americans; Racism; Radio program
ID: NC0020

Is the Church a Joke? - Night Call
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Date:1968-06-27
Length: 57:44 minutes:seconds
Del Shields, (Host) ; Jackie Robinson, (Guest)
Jack Roosevelt "Jackie" Robinson (1919-1972) was a Major League Baseball second baseman who was the first African American to play in the major leagues in the modern era. Robinson broke the baseball color line when the Brooklyn Dodgers started him at first base on April 15, 1947. Robinson's character, his focus on nonviolence, and his unquestionable talent challenged the traditional basis of segregation and had an impact on the culture of the Civil Rights Movement. At the time of this program, Robinson was special assistant for community affairs for New York Governor Nelson Rockefeller. He believed Christians with the right intentions could have a great positive impact on civil rights. Questions from callers were more related to protests, violence, Black Power, and racial disparity. Questions also dealt with distortion of the faith in the White churches. - The first minute of the program (the introduction) was not on the audiotape, which was a dub of the original.
Topics: Baseball; Civil rights; Politics; Racism; Radio program
ID: NC0035

What Happened to the Kerner Report? - Night Call
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Date:1968-07-01
Length: 58:59 minutes:seconds
Del Shields, (Host) ; John Lindsay, (Guest)
The National Advisory Commission on Civil Disorders was known as the Kerner Commission, named after its chair, Governor Otto Kerner, Jr. of Illinois. New York Mayor John Lindsay (1921-2000) was vice-chair of the 11-member commission established by President Lyndon B. Johnson to investigate the causes of the 1967 race riots in the United States and to provide recommendations for the future. The commission found racism among White Americans was a major factor in driving the riots. Lindsay had been awake for 48 hours working to resolve a hospital worker strike, but still showed up for this program. He said young Black Americans were understandably angry at the racism and limited opportunities in the U.S. Callers asked about future riots, White racism, support (or not) of the report from major politicians, ways to alleviate racial unrest, interracial marriage, busing, and the costs of the Kerner Report proposals. The original report can be seen at: https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/Digitization/8073NCJRS.pdf
Topics: Civil rights; Civil unrest; Politics; Racism; Radio program
ID: NC0036

Is the Southern Baptist Church Racist Anymore? - Night Call
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Date:1968-07-02
Length: 58:58 minutes:seconds
Del Shields, (Host) ; W. A. Criswell, (Guest)
The guest is Dr. W. A. Criswell, the new president of the Southern Baptist Convention. Wallie Amos Criswell (1909-2002) was an American pastor, author, and a two-term elected president of the Southern Baptist Convention from 1968 to 1970. The church had just voted to turn away from segregation and racism. He sees no biblical support for racism. Callers questioned the sincerity of the church, whether the church will promote Black members as professors in their schools, whether interracial marriage was happening in Southern Baptist churches, if the Southern Baptists and American Baptist will ever merge, and how the Southern Baptist will work against segregation. - For over fifty years, Criswell was the pastor of the First Baptist Church in downtown Dallas, Texas, a church known for its conservative evangelical teachings.
Topics: Church life; Civil rights; Racism; Radio programs
ID: NC0037

The South, Race, and Tomorrow - Night Call
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Date:1968-07-05
Length: 57:43 minutes:seconds
Del Shields, (Host) ; Ralph McGill, (Guest)
This conversation comes after the release of Kerner Report, which focused on causes of race riots. Ralph Emerson McGill (1898-1969) was an American journalist, best known as an anti-segregationist editor and publisher of the Atlanta Constitution newspaper. He won a Pulitzer Prize for editorial writing in 1959. As publisher (1960-1969,) he continued to write columns in which he called for Whites to accept the inevitable changes being brought by the civil rights movement. Callers asked about the effects and value of the riots, failure to note Black colleges in the Atlanta area, media coverage of civil disorder in the North and the South, lack of jobs for Black college graduates, how to speed-up integration, and whether the church has failed to support integration.
Topics: Civil unrest; Racism; Radio program; Riots
ID: NC0039

The Christian Church's Betrayal of the Black Man - Night Call
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Date:1968-07-16
Length: 58:49 minutes:seconds
Del Shields, (Host) ; James Baldwin, (Guest)
James Arthur Baldwin (1924-1987) was an African American novelist, essayist, playwright, poet, and social critic. One week before this program, he spoke to the World Council Of Churches in Uppsala, Sweden, telling them the Christian Church had betrayed the Black man by identifying with racist institutions in society, and has lost touch with Christian principles. He asked them whether "there is left in Christian civilization the moral energy, the spiritual daring, to atone, to repent, to be born again". Here, he continues to challenge the Christian church, which he feels has broken with Christ. Callers ask if God leaves Black people in misery, why Catholics need to be lumped in with Protestants, who can help Whites and Blacks to live together, isn't there just one human race, is the term "Christian" being misused, and what Black people can believe in and depend on. Baldwin says the choice is to live with a bad reality, or for America to address the issue.
Topics: Racism; Radio programs; Religion
ID: NC0045

The New Black Politics - Night Call
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Date:1968-07-17
Length: 58:07 minutes:seconds
Del Shields, (Host) ; John Conyers, Jr., (Guest)
John James Conyers, Jr. (b. 1929) was elected to Congress in 1965. As of 2016, he was its longest-serving current member, making him the Dean of the House of Representatives. In 1968, he chaired the National Board of Inquiry, focusing on presidential politics and policies that affect African Americans. He told callers his committee was not trying to determine for Black Americans who to vote for, but to provide an analysis of candidates for Black voters to use in making decisions. He questioned the supposed help of liberals, spoke of the plight of Native Americans, stated that poverty is also a White problem, and that the wealthiest nation in the world should be able to eliminate slums and employ all its citizens.
Topics: Civil rights; Politics; Racism; Radio programs
ID: NC0046

Open Lines Program: Issues of Black Leadership - Night Call
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Date:1968-07-26
Length: 58:36 minutes:seconds
Del Shields, (Host) ; Callers, (Guest)
This program is a classic example of a technical nightmare on a live program. The guest was supposed to be Maulana Karenga (Ronald Everett,) president of the US Organization. Karenga and Hakim Jamal had created "US Organization" as an alternative to the Black Panthers. Two years earlier, In 1966, Karenga created Kwanzaa, the African-American holiday. The phone connection to Karenga failed before the program started. The result is an open lines program, discussing issues related to Black leadership and culture in the U.S. in the late 1960s. There were multiple phone problems, but the conversation with callers continued.
Topics: Civil rights; Politics; Racism; Radio program
ID: NC0050

American Violence and Black Anti-Semitism - Night Call
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Date:1968-07-31
Length: 59:04 minutes:seconds
Del Shields, (Host) ; Morris Abram, (Guest)
Morris B. Abram (1918-2000) was the president of the American Jewish Committee and had just been named president of Brandeis University. He was a lawyer and civil rights activist who fought for Black voting rights in rural Georgia. Caller discussions dealt with difficulties between Black Americans and Jewish Americans. They also discussed public education, lack of commitment toward a better society among Whites of all faiths, the possibility of more commitment, and whether Jews might focus less on sympathy for Black citizens and more on action. Abram also wants more action on the part of the U. S. government. They also discuss the importance of non-violence, the effects of Resurrection City, and whether societies always need scapegoats. Abram says there will some day be a Black U. S. president, and some day, a woman.
Topics: Anti-semetism; Civil rights; Politics; Racism; Radio program
ID: NC0051

American Sports and Black Athletes, Part 1: Titles Aren't Color Blind - Night Call
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Date:1968-08-05
Length: minutes:seconds
Del Shields, (Host) ; Muhammad Ali, (Guest)
Muhammad Ali (1942- ) was born Cassius Marcellus Clay, Jr. in Louisville, Kentucky. At the time of this program, he was the former heavyweight boxing champion and had been convicted of avoiding the draft, but was waiting out the appeal process. At this time, he was prohibited from professional boxing, and from leaving the country. He considered himself a conscientious objector as a Muslim clergy member. In 1971, the U.S. Supreme Court overturned his conviction. Ali says the racial situation in the U.S. is not a matter of hating White people, it is a matter of hating the injustices perpetrated on Black people. Ali says young Black people are tired of good Black people being nice, and they need to exert themselves forcefully. Callers showed their appreciation of Ali, and also challenged him on not serving in Vietnam, and his opposition to racial intermarriage. Audio quality is reduced by Ali's enthusiasm - speaking quickly and loudly on the phone connection.
Topics: Athletics; Civil rights; Racism; Radio program
ID: NC0054